Skip to content

After having experienced an internal conflict and a brief war against Eritrea in the 1990s, Djibouti regularly experienced situations of violence, mainly during electoral periods. The country is also known to host important foreign military bases belonging to China, France, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Spain, the United States, and the United Kingdom, which is considered to increase the risk of terrorist activities on its territory.

At the same time, several reports pointed to Djibouti’s increasingly important role in the illicit regional transfer of weapons and ammunition, some even qualifying the country as a new “trafficking hub” in the Horn of Africa. This led to an important proliferation of weapons and ammunition in the country, which is also raising concerns over armed crimes and terrorist activities.

In terms of Weapons and Ammunition Management (WAM), Djibouti implemented a national framework regulating the sale and use of SALW. The country also signed the Nairobi Protocol and established a “national focal point” on SALW.

Source: Matthias Schwarz, “Arms Transfers in the Gulf of Aden. Shining the Spotlight on Regional Dynamics”, Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (Blog),; Dominique Dye, “Arms control in a rough neighbourhood: The case of the great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa”, Institute for Security Studies, Paper 179, February 2009,; Pangea-Risk (Africa & Middle East Forecasting), “Djibouti: Elections Tampering and Arms Smuggling Allegations Mar President’s Fifth Term”, 13.04.21,

Launch the country dashboard

Map of Djibouti

Further information

Accidental explosions

Since the beginning of data collection in 1979 by the Small Arms Survey, no accidental explosions have been reported in Djibouti.

Cases of diversion

Insufficient information on cases of diversion in Djibouti.


Insufficient information on the disposal of ammunition in Djibouti.


No needs have been identified for Djibouti.

Published Date: Wednesday 18 of January 2023