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Nepal is characterised by governance problems that have led to ongoing political instability. From 1996 to 2006, the country experienced an armed conflict that left large quantities of weapons, ammunition and unexploded ordnance on its territory.1 As of 2023, Nepal still has high levels of weapons and ammunition trafficking.2 In 2011, the country was declared free of landmines and other types of unexploded ordnance.3

Nonviolence International is the only organisation working on the ground to support the through-life management of ammunition, in collaboration with the Ministry of Defence of Nepal. Efforts have included contributing to regional and national mechanisms for the regulation of weapons and ammunition by promoting synergies; encouraging the sharing of national initiatives and regional approaches; and documenting work on successful ammunition regulations, stockpile management and challenges to national implementation measures to reduce armed violence in the region.4

1 OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights), Nepal Conflict Report (Geneva: OHCHR, 2012),

Philip Alpers and Marcus Wilson, Nepal – Gun Facts, Figures and the Law (, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, 2022),

“Nepal Celebrates Becoming the Second Country in Asia to Become Free of Minefields,” UNICEF, ReliefWeb, June 22, 2011,

“Ammunition Management Activity Platform (A-MAP),” GICHD, 2022,


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Further information

Accidental explosions

Since the Small Arms Survey began collecting data in 1979, one accidental explosion has been reported in Nepal.

Table 1. Accidental explosions in Nepal (1979–2021)

Year Location Owner/manager Deaths Injuries
2013 Pokhara State (police) 0 0

Source: “Unplanned Explosions at Munitions Sites (UEMS) Database,” Small Arms Survey, updated December 15, 2021,

Cases of diversion

Some cases of diversion have been reported since 2006 in Nepal.

Table 2. Cases of diversion of arms, ammunition and explosives in Nepal since 2006

Year Location Description



Weapons, including a sub-machine gun and its bullets, were stolen from a police bureau.



An M-16 rifle and a light machine gun were stolen from army stocks during an armed confrontation.



One Colt Commando rifle, 56 light machine guns, 4 general-purpose machine guns, 3 Chinese sniper rifles, 5 Galil rifles, 138 INSAS rifles, 5 M16s and 3 LMSWs were stolen from army headquarters during an armed confrontation.

Source: “Weapons Missing from Nepal Army's Far-Western HQ Found, Three Suspects Arrested,” OnlineKhabar, September 23, 2016,; “Modern Weapons Looted by Maoists from NA Have Reached Chand's Cadres,” Setopati, March 4, 2019,; Jana Astha, “Stolen Weapons,” Nepali Times, July 2006,


Insufficient information on the disposal of ammunition in Nepal.


No needs have been reported for Nepal.

Source: No National Report on the Implementation of the Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons (PoA) and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI) is available for Nepal:

Published Date: Thursday 16 of November 2023