Skip to content

In 1991, the north-western part of Somalia unilaterally declared its independence as the Republic of Somaliland. The territory has gradually re-established relative peace and stability and operated autonomously from the federal government. Nevertheless, this peace remains fragile. Tensions between Somaliland, semi-autonomous Puntland and the new Somali authorities may escalate into violence and further conflict.1 Somaliland is affected by gang and clan violence, as well as accidents involving small arms and light weapons. Large quantities of small arms and light weapons circulate in the country or are easily available.2

The country’s guiding gun control legislation includes the Law on the Control of Arms and Munition of 1995.3 In 1999, the HALO Trust began work in Somaliland, clearing landmines and explosives and providing training and mentoring on safety matters.4


1 “Somalia SSR Background Note,” DCAF – Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance, July 19, 2017,

2 DDG (Danish Demining Group) and Small Arms Survey, Community Safety and Small Arms in Somaliland (Copenhagen: Danish Demining Group, 2010),

3 “Major Somaliland Laws & Regulations Dealing With Public Safety,” Somaliland Public Safety Laws,, 2010,

4 “Somalia and Somaliland,” Halo Trust, 2022,

Launch the country dashboard

Map of Somaliland

Further information

Accidental explosions

Since the Small Arms Survey began collecting data in 1979, one accidental explosion has been reported in Somaliland.

Table 1. Accidental explosions in Somaliland (1979–2021)








Non-state (actor)



Source: “Unplanned Explosions at Munitions Sites (UEMS) Database,” Small Arms Survey, updated December 15, 2021,

Cases of diversion

Insufficient information on cases of diversion in Somaliland.


Insufficient information on the disposal of ammunition in Somaliland.


To further enhance safe and secure ammunition management, the following needs have been identified for Somaliland:

  • Sensitisation, advocacy and awareness raising among communities to address the safety concerns they face related to small arms and light weapons and ammunition; and
  • Improvement of the interlinkages between police and traditional and religious leaders aimed at enhancing their ability to resolve disputes and mediate conflicts.


Source: DDG and Small Arms Survey, Community Safety and Small Arms in Somaliland.

Published Date: Monday 21 of August 2023